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    Horatius
    History; Posted on: 2008-05-14 13:23:10 [ Printer friendly / Instant flyer ]
    Horatius Cocles ("Horatius the one eyed") defended the Republic of Rome single handedly from Etruscan invasion after his fellow citizens fled in panic. Lionized as a hero by Livy, Polybius and others, Horatius symbolized single minded courage and commitment to justice and truth in the face of overwhelming odds, a message as vital today as it was in the days of Rome. Macaulay's most famous poem dealt with the hero Horatius Cocles. Published in 1842 it met with immense acclaim and has become part of the Western canon.

    A Lay Made About the Year Of The City CCCLX

    I

    Lars Porsena of Closium
    By the Nine Gods he swore
    That the great house of Tarquin
    Should suffer wrong no more.
    By the Nine Gods he swore it,
    And named a trysting day,
    And bade his messengers ride forth,
    East and west and south and north,
    To summon his array.

    II

    East and west and south and north
    The messengers ride fast,
    And tower and town and cottage
    Have heard the trumpet's blast.
    Shame on the false Etruscan
    Who lingers in his home,
    When Porsena of Clusium
    Is on the march for Rome.

    III

    The horsemen and the footmen
    Are pouring in amain
    From many a stately market-place,
    From many a fruitful plain,
    From many a lonely hamlet,
    Which, hid by beech and pine,
    Like an eagle's nest, hangs on the crest
    Of purple Apennine;

    IV

    From lordly Volaterrę,
    Where scowls the far-famed hold
    Piled by the hands of giants
    For godlike kings of old;
    From seagirt Populonia,
    Whose sentinels descry
    Sardinia's snowy mountain-tops
    Fringing the southern sky;

    V

    From the proud mart of Pisę,
    Queen of the western waves,
    Where ride Massilia's triremes
    Heavy with fair-haired slaves;
    From where sweet Clanis wanders
    Through corn and vines and flowers;
    From where Cortona lifts to heaven
    Her diadem of towers.

    VI

    Tall are the oaks whose acorns
    Drop in dark Auser's rill;
    Fat are the stags that champ the boughs
    Of the Ciminian hill;
    Beyond all streams Clitumnus
    Is to the herdsman dear;
    Best of all pools the fowler loves
    The great Volsinian mere.

    VII

    But now no stroke of woodman
    Is heard by Auser's rill;
    No hunter tracks the stag's green path
    Up the Ciminian hill;
    Unwatched along Clitumnus
    Grazes the milk-white steer;
    Unharmed the water fowl may dip
    In the Volsminian mere.

    VIII

    The harvests of Arretium,
    This year, old men shall reap;
    This year, young boys in Umbro
    Shall plunge the struggling sheep;
    And in the vats of Luna,
    This year, the must shall foam
    Round the white feet of laughing girls
    Whose sires have marched to Rome.

    IX

    There be thirty chosen prophets,
    The wisest of the land,
    Who alway by Lars Porsena
    Both morn and evening stand:
    Evening and morn the Thirty
    Have turned the verses o'er,
    Traced from the right on linen white
    By mighty seers of yore.

    X

    And with one voice the Thirty
    Have their glad answer given:
    "Go forth, go forth, Lars Porsena;
    Go forth, beloved of Heaven;
    Go, and return in glory
    To Clusium's royal dome;
    And hang round Nurscia's altars
    The golden shields of Rome."

    XI

    And now hath every city
    Sent up her tale of men;
    The foot are fourscore thousand,
    The horse are thousands ten.
    Before the gates of Sutrium
    Is met the great array.
    A proud man was Lars Porsena
    Upon the trysting day.

    XII

    For all the Etruscan armies
    Were ranged beneath his eye,
    And many a banished Roman,
    And many a stout ally;
    And with a mighty following
    To join the muster came
    The Tusculan Mamilius,
    Prince of the Latian name.

    XIII

    But by the yellow Tiber
    Was tumult and affright:
    From all the spacious champaign
    To Rome men took their flight.
    A mile around the city,
    The throng stopped up the ways;
    A fearful sight it was to see
    Through two long nights and days.

    XIV

    For aged folks on crutches,
    And women great with child,
    And mothers sobbing over babes
    That clung to them and smiled,
    And sick men borne in litters
    High on the necks of slaves,
    And troops of sun-burned husbandmen
    With reaping-hooks and staves,

    XV

    And droves of mules and asses
    Laden with skins of wine,
    And endless flocks of goats and sheep,
    And endless herds of kine,
    And endless trains of wagons
    That creaked beneath the weight
    Of corn-sacks and of household goods,
    Choked every roaring gate.

    XVI

    Now, from the rock Tarpeian,
    Could the wan burghers spy
    The line of blazing villages
    Red in the midnight sky.
    The Fathers of the City,
    They sat all night and day,
    For every hour some horseman come
    With tidings of dismay.

    XVII

    To eastward and to westward
    Have spread the Tuscan bands;
    Nor house, nor fence, nor dovecote
    In Crustumerium stands.
    Verbenna down to Ostia
    Hath wasted all the plain;
    Astur hath stormed Janiculum,
    And the stout guards are slain.

    XVIII

    I wis, in all the Senate, [wis: know]
    There was no heart so bold,
    But sore it ached, and fast it beat,
    When that ill news was told.
    Forthwith up rose the Consul,
    Up rose the Fathers all;
    In haste they girded up their gowns,
    And hied them to the wall.

    XIX

    They held a council standing,
    Before the River-Gate;
    Short time was there, ye well may guess,
    For musing or debate.
    Out spake the Consul roundly:
    "The bridge must straight go down;
    For, since Janiculum is lost,
    Nought else can save the town."

    XX

    Just then a scout came flying,
    All wild with haste and fear:
    "To arms! to arms! Sir Consul:
    Lars Porsena is here."
    On the low hills to westward
    The Consul fixed his eye,
    And saw the swarthy storm of dust
    Rise fast along the sky.

    XXI

    And nearer fast and nearer
    Doth the red whirlwind come;
    And louder still and still more loud,
    From underneath that rolling cloud,
    Is heard the trumpet's war-note proud,
    The trampling, and the hum.
    And plainly and more plainly
    Now through the gloom appears,
    Far to left and far to right,
    In broken gleams of dark-blue light,
    The long array of helmets bright,
    The long array of spears.

    XXII

    And plainly and more plainly,
    Above that glimmering line,
    Now might ye see the banners
    Of twelve fair cities shine;
    But the banner of proud Clusium
    Was highest of them all,
    The terror of the Umbrian,
    The terror of the Gaul.

    XXIII

    And plainly and more plainly
    Now might the burghers know,
    By port and vest, by horse and crest,
    Each warlike Lucumo.
    There Cilnius of Arretium
    On his fleet roan was seen;
    And Astur of the four-fold shield,
    Girt with the brand none else may wield,
    Tolumnius with the belt of gold,
    And dark Verbenna from the hold
    By reedy Thrasymene.

    XXIV

    Fast by the royal standard,
    O'erlooking all the war,
    Lars Porsena of Clusium
    Sat in his ivory car.
    By the right wheel rode Mamilius,
    Prince of the Latian name;
    And by the left false Sextus,
    That wrought the deed of shame.

    XXV

    But when the face of Sextus
    Was seen among the foes,
    A yell that rent the firmament
    From all the town arose.
    On the house-tops was no woman
    But spat towards him and hissed,
    No child but screamed out curses,
    And shook its little fist.

    XXVI

    But the Consul's brow was sad,
    And the Consul's speech was low,
    And darkly looked he at the wall,
    And darkly at the foe.
    "Their van will be upon us
    Before the bridge goes down;
    And if they once may win the bridge,
    What hope to save the town?"

    XXVII

    Then out spake brave Horatius,
    The Captain of the Gate:
    "To every man upon this earth
    Death cometh soon or late.
    And how can man die better
    Than facing fearful odds,
    For the ashes of his fathers,
    And the temples of his gods,

    XXVIII

    "And for the tender mother
    Who dandled him to rest,
    And for the wife who nurses
    His baby at her breast,
    And for the holy maidens
    Who feed the eternal flame,
    To save them from false Sextus
    That wrought the deed of shame?

    XXIX

    "Haul down the bridge, Sir Consul,
    With all the speed ye may;
    I, with two more to help me,
    Will hold the foe in play.
    In yon strait path a thousand
    May well be stopped by three.
    Now who will stand on either hand,
    And keep the bridge with me?"

    XXX

    Then out spake Spurius Lartius;
    A Ramnian proud was he:
    "Lo, I will stand at thy right hand,
    And keep the bridge with thee."
    And out spake strong Herminius;
    Of Titian blood was he:
    "I will abide on thy left side,
    And keep the bridge with thee."

    XXXI

    "Horatius," quoth the Consul,
    "As thou sayest, so let it be."
    And straight against that great array
    Forth went the dauntless Three.
    For Romans in Rome's quarrel
    Spared neither land nor gold,
    Nor son nor wife, nor limb nor life,
    In the brave days of old.

    XXXII

    Then none was for a party;
    Then all were for the state;
    Then the great man helped the poor,
    And the poor man loved the great:
    Then lands were fairly portioned;
    Then spoils were fairly sold:
    The Romans were like brothers
    In the brave days of old.

    XXXIII

    Now Roman is to Roman
    More hateful than a foe,
    And the Tribunes beard the high,
    And the Fathers grind the low.
    As we wax hot in faction,
    In battle we wax cold:
    Wherefore men fight not as they fought
    In the brave days of old.

    XXXIV

    Now while the Three were tightening
    Their harness on their backs,
    The Consul was the foremost man
    To take in hand an axe:
    And Fathers mixed with Commons
    Seized hatchet, bar, and crow,
    And smote upon the planks above,
    And loosed the props below.

    XXXV

    Meanwhile the Tuscan army,
    Right glorious to behold,
    Come flashing back the noonday light,
    Rank behind rank, like surges bright
    Of a broad sea of gold.
    Four hundred trumpets sounded
    A peal of warlike glee,
    As that great host, with measured tread,
    And spears advanced, and ensigns spread,
    Rolled slowly towards the bridge's head,
    Where stood the dauntless Three.

    XXXVI

    The Three stood calm and silent,
    And looked upon the foes,
    And a great shout of laughter
    From all the vanguard rose:
    And forth three chiefs came spurring
    Before that deep array;
    To earth they sprang, their swords they drew,
    And lifted high their shields, and flew
    To win the narrrow way;

    XXXVII

    Aunus from green Tifernum,
    Lord of the Hill of Vines;
    And Seius, whose eight hundred slaves
    Sicken in Ilva's mines;
    And Picus, long to Clusium
    Vassal in peace and war,
    Who led to fight his Umbrian powers
    From that gray crag where, girt with towers,
    The fortress of Nequinum lowers
    O'er the pale waves of Nar.

    XXXVIII

    Stout Lartius hurled down Aunus
    Into the stream beneath;
    Herminius struck at Seius,
    And clove him to the teeth;
    At Picus brave Horatius
    Darted one fiery thrust;
    And the proud Umbrian's gilded arms
    Clashed in the bloody dust.

    XXXIX

    Then Ocnus of Falerii
    Rushed on the Roman Three;
    And Lausulus of Urgo,
    The rover of the sea;
    And Aruns of Volsinium,
    Who slew the great wild boar,
    The great wild boar that had his den
    Amidst the reeds of Cosa's fen,
    And wasted fields, and slaughtered men,
    Along Albinia's shore.

    XL

    Herminius smote down Aruns:
    Lartius laid Ocnus low:
    Right to the heart of Lausulus
    Horatius sent a blow.
    "Lie there," he cried, "fell pirate!
    No more, aghast and pale,
    From Ostia's walls the crowd shall mark
    The track of thy destroying bark.
    No more Campania's hinds shall fly
    To woods and caverns when they spy
    Thy thrice accursed sail."

    XLI

    But now no sound of laughter
    Was heard among the foes.
    A wild and wrathful clamor
    From all the vanguard rose.
    Six spears' lengths from the entrance
    Halted that deep array,
    And for a space no man came forth
    To win the narrow way.

    XLII

    But hark! the cry is Astur:
    And lo! the ranks divide;
    And the great Lord of Luna
    Comes with his stately stride.
    Upon his ample shoulders
    Clangs loud the four-fold shield,
    And in his hand he shakes the brand
    Which none but he can wield.

    XLIII

    He smiled on those bold Romans
    A smile serene and high;
    He eyed the flinching Tuscans,
    And scorn was in his eye.
    Quoth he, "The she-wolf's litter
    Stand savagely at bay:
    But will ye dare to follow,
    If Astur clears the way?"

    XLIV

    Then, whirling up his broadsword
    With both hands to the height,
    He rushed against Horatius,
    And smote with all his might.
    With shield and blade Horatius
    Right deftly turned the blow.
    The blow, though turned, came yet too nigh;
    It missed his helm, but gashed his thigh:
    The Tuscans raised a joyful cry
    To see the red blood flow.

    XLV

    He reeled, and on Herminius
    He leaned one breathing-space;
    Then, like a wild cat mad with wounds,
    Sprang right at Astur's face.
    Through teeth, and skull, and helmet
    So fierce a thrust he sped,
    The good sword stood a hand-breadth out
    Behind the Tuscan's head.

    XLVI

    And the great Lord of Luna
    Fell at that deadly stroke,
    As falls on Mount Alvernus
    A thunder smitten oak:
    Far o'er the crashing forest
    The giant arms lie spread;
    And the pale augurs, muttering low,
    Gaze on the blasted head.

    XLVII

    On Astur's throat Horatius
    Right firmly pressed his heel,
    And thrice and four times tugged amain,
    Ere he wrenched out the steel.
    "And see," he cried, "the welcome,
    Fair guests, that waits you here!
    What noble Lucomo comes next
    To taste our Roman cheer?"

    XLVIII

    But at his haughty challange
    A sullen murmur ran,
    Mingled of wrath, and shame, and dread,
    Along that glittering van.
    There lacked not men of prowess,
    Nor men of lordly race;
    For all Etruria's noblest
    Were round the fatal place.

    XLIX

    But all Etruria's noblest
    Felt their hearts sink to see
    On the earth the bloody corpses,
    In the path the dauntless Three:
    And, from the ghastly entrance
    Where those bold Romans stood,
    All shrank, like boys who unaware,
    Ranging the woods to start a hare,
    Come to the mouth of the dark lair
    Where, growling low, a fierce old bear
    Lies amidst bones and blood.

    L

    Was none who would be foremost
    To lead such dire attack;
    But those behind cried, "Forward!"
    And those before cried, "Back!"
    And backward now and forward
    Wavers the deep array;
    And on the tossing sea of steel
    To and frow the standards reel;
    And the victorious trumpet-peal
    Dies fitfully away.

    LI

    Yet one man for one moment
    Strode out before the crowd;
    Well known was he to all the Three,
    And they gave him greeting loud.
    "Now welcome, welcome, Sextus!
    Now welcome to thy home!
    Why dost thou stay, and turn away?
    Here lies the road to Rome."

    LII

    Thrice looked he at the city;
    Thrice looked he at the dead;
    And thrice came on in fury,
    And thrice turned back in dread:
    And, white with fear and hatred,
    Scowled at the narrow way
    Where, wallowing in a pool of blood,
    The bravest Tuscans lay.

    LIII

    But meanwhile axe and lever
    Have manfully been plied;
    And now the bridge hangs tottering
    Above the boiling tide.
    "Come back, come back, Horatius!"
    Loud cried the Fathers all.
    "Back, Lartius! back, Herminius!
    Back, ere the ruin fall!"

    LIV

    Back darted Spurius Lartius;
    Herminius darted back:
    And, as they passed, beneath their feet
    They felt the timbers crack.
    But when they turned their faces,
    And on the farther shore
    Saw brave Horatius stand alone,
    They would have crossed once more.

    LV

    But with a crash like thunder
    Fell every loosened beam,
    And, like a dam, the mighty wreck
    Lay right athwart the stream:
    And a long shout of triumph
    Rose from the walls of Rome,
    As to the highest turret-tops
    Was splashed the yellow foam.

    LVI

    And, like a horse unbroken
    When first he feels the rein,
    The furious river struggled hard,
    And tossed his tawny mane,
    And burst the curb and bounded,
    Rejoicing to be free,
    And whirling down, in fierce career,
    Battlement, and plank, and pier,
    Rushed headlong to the sea.

    LVII

    Alone stood brave Horatius,
    But constant still in mind;
    Thrice thirty thousand foes before,
    And the broad flood behind.
    "Down with him!" cried false Sextus,
    With a smile on his pale face.
    "Now yield thee," cried Lars Porsena,
    "Now yield thee to our grace."

    LVIII

    Round turned he, as not deigning
    Those craven ranks to see;
    Nought spake he to Lars Porsena,
    To Sextus nought spake he;
    But he saw on Palatinus
    The white porch of his home;
    And he spake to the noble river
    That rolls by the towers of Rome.

    LVIX

    "Oh, Tiber! Father Tiber!
    To whom the Romans pray,
    A Roman's life, a Roman's arms,
    Take thou in charge this day!"
    So he spake, and speaking sheathed
    The good sword by his side,
    And with his harness on his back,
    Plunged headlong in the tide.

    LX

    No sound of joy or sorrow
    Was heard from either bank;
    But friends and foes in dumb surprise,
    With parted lips and straining eyes,
    Stood gazing where he sank;
    And when above the surges,
    They saw his crest appear,
    All Rome sent forth a rapturous cry,
    And even the ranks of Tuscany
    Could scarce forbear to cheer.

    LXI

    But fiercely ran the current,
    Swollen high by months of rain:
    And fast his blood was flowing;
    And he was sore in pain,
    And heavy with his armor,
    And spent with changing blows:
    And oft they thought him sinking,
    But still again he rose.

    LXII

    Never, I ween, did swimmer,
    In such an evil case,
    Struggle through such a raging flood
    Safe to the landing place:
    But his limbs were borne up bravely
    By the brave heart within,
    And our good father Tiber
    Bare bravely up his chin.

    LXIII

    "Curse on him!" quoth false Sextus;
    "Will not the villain drown?
    But for this stay, ere close of day
    We should have sacked the town!"
    "Heaven help him!" quoth Lars Porsena
    "And bring him safe to shore;
    For such a gallant feat of arms
    Was never seen before."

    LXIV

    And now he feels the bottom;
    Now on dry earth he stands;
    Now round him throng the Fathers;
    To press his gory hands;
    And now, with shouts and clapping,
    And noise of weeping loud,
    He enters through the River-Gate
    Borne by the joyous crowd.

    LXV

    They gave him of the corn-land,
    That was of public right,
    As much as two strong oxen
    Could plough from morn till night;
    And they made a molten image,
    And set it up on high,
    And there is stands unto this day
    To witness if I lie.

    LXVI

    It stands in the Comitium
    Plain for all folk to see;
    Horatius in his harness,
    Halting upon one knee:
    And underneath is written,
    In letters all of gold,
    How valiantly he kept the bridge
    In the brave days of old.

    LXVII

    And still his name sounds stirring
    Unto the men of Rome,
    As the trumpet-blast that cries to them
    To charge the Volscian home;
    And wives still pray to Juno
    For boys with hearts as bold
    As his who kept the bridge so well
    In the brave days of old.

    LXVIII

    And in the nights of winter,
    When the cold north winds blow,
    And the long howling of the wolves
    Is heard amidst the snow;
    When round the lonely cottage
    Roars loud the tempest's din,
    And the good logs of Algidus
    Roar louder yet within;

    LXIX

    When the oldest cask is opened,
    And the largest lamp is lit;
    When the chestnuts glow in the embers,
    And the kid turns on the spit;
    When young and old in circle
    Around the firebrands close;
    When the girls are weaving baskets,
    And the lads are shaping bows;

    LXX

    When the goodman mends his armor,
    And trims his helmet's plume;
    When the goodwife's shuttle merrily
    Goes flashing through the loom;
    With weeping and with laughter
    Still is the story told,
    How well Horatius kept the bridge
    In the brave days of old.
    News Source: Thomas Babbington Macaulay

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